Sex-specific differences at presentation and outcomes among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement a cohort study

Susheel Kodali, Mathew R. Williams, Darshan Doshi, Rebecca T. Hahn, Karin H. Humphries, Vuyisile T. Nkomo, David J. Cohen, Pamela S. Douglas, Michael Mack, Ke Xu, Lars Svensson, Vinod H. Thourani, E. Murat Tuzcu, Neil J. Weissman, Martin Leon, Ajay J. Kirtane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Female sex is associated with poorer outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Data on sexspecific differences after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are conflicting. Objective: To examine sex-specific differences in patients undergoing TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) trial. Design: Secondary analysis of the randomized and nonrandomized portions of the PARTNER trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00530894) Setting: 25 hospitals in the United States, Canada, and Germany. Patients: High-risk and inoperable patients (1220 women and 1339 men). Intervention: TAVR. Measurements: Demographic characteristics, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, mortality, stroke, rehospitalization, vascular complications, bleeding complications, and echocardiographic valve parameters. Results: At baseline, women had lower rates of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and renal disease but higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality scores (11.9% vs. 11.1%; P < 0.001). After TAVR, women had more vascular complications (17.3% vs. 10.0%; difference, 7.29 percentage points [95% CI, 4.63 to 9.95 percentage points]; P < 0.001) and major bleeding (10.5% vs. 7.7%; difference, 2.8 percentage points [CI, 0.57 to 5.04 percentage points]; P = 0.012) but less frequent moderate and severe paravalvular regurgitation (6.0% vs. 14.3%; difference, -8.3 percentage points [CI, -11.7 to -5.0 percentage points]; P < 0.001). At 30 days, the unadjusted all-cause mortality rate (6.5% vs. 5.9%; difference, 0.6 percentage point [CI, -1.29 to 2.45 percentage points]; P = 0.52) and stroke incidence (3.8% vs. 3.0%; difference, 0.8 percentage point [CI, -0.62 to 2.19 percentage points]; P = 0.28) were similar. At 1 year, all-cause mortality was significantly lower in women than in men (19.0% vs. 25.9%; hazard ratio, 0.72 [CI, 0.61 to 0.85]; P < 0.001). Limitation: Secondary analysis that included nonrandomized trial data. Conclusion: Despite a higher incidence of vascular and bleeding complications, women having TAVR had lower mortality than men at 1 year. Thus, sex-specific risk in TAVR is the opposite of that in SAVR, for which female sex has been shown to be independently associated with an adverse prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-384
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of internal medicine
Volume164
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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