Sex-related differences in calcific aortic stenosis: Correlating clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and computed tomography aortic valve calcium score to excised aortic valve weight

Jeremy J. Thaden, Vuyisile T. Nkomo, Rakesh M. Suri, Joseph J. Maleszewski, Daniel J. Soderberg, Marie Annick Clavel, Sorin V. Pislaru, Joseph F. Malouf, Thomas A. Foley, Jae K. Oh, Jordan D. Miller, William D. Edwards, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aims Calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS) is purportedly associated with less calcium burden in women than in men. We sought to examine sex-related differences and correlates of surgically excised aortic valve weight (AVW) in pure AS. Methods and results Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of 888 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for severe AS were correlated to AVW, and in 126 patients, AVW was also correlated to computed tomography aortic valve calcium (AVC) score. Women and men had similar indexed valve area (0.42 ± 0.09 vs. 0.42 ± 0.07 cm 2/m2, P = 0.95) and mean systolic gradient (53 ± 15 vs. 52 ± 13 mmHg, P = 0.11), but women had higher New York Heart Association class (2.63 ± 0.70 vs. 2.50 ± 0.70, P = 0.01) and less prevalent coronary artery disease (38 vs. 52%, P < 0.0001). Aortic valve weight was lower in women (1.94 ± 0.88 vs. 3.08 ± 1.32 g, P < 0.0001) even when indexed to body surface area (1.09 ± 0.48 vs. 1.48 ± 0.62 g/m2, P < 0.0001) or left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) area (0.54 ± 0.23 vs. 0.71 ± 0.29 g/cm2, P < 0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, male sex (P < 0.0001), bicuspid valve (P < 0.0001), and larger LVOT area (P < 0.0001) were the major determinants of increased AVW, along with current cigarette smoking (P = 0.007). Diabetes (P = 0.004) and hypertension (P = 0.03) were independently associated with lower AVW. Aortic valve calcium correlated well with AVW (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001) and was lower in women than in men (2520 ± 1199 vs. 3606 ± 1632 arbitrary units, P < 0.0001). Conclusions Despite the same degree of AS severity, women have less AVC and lower AVW compared with men, irrespective of valve morphology. Aortic valve calcium is correlated to excised AVW. Hypertension, diabetes, and current cigarette smoking were independently associated with AVW.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)693-699
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean heart journal
Volume37
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 21 2016

Keywords

  • Aortic stenosis
  • Aortic valve weight
  • Computed tomography
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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