Sex Disparities in the Management and Outcomes of Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Young

Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Lina Ya'qoub, Mandeep Singh, Malcolm R. Bell, Rajiv Gulati, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Pranathi R. Sundaragiri, Virginia M. Miller, Allan S. Jaffe, Bernard J. Gersh, David R. Holmes, Gregory W. Barsness

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: There are limited data on how sex influences the outcomes of acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) in young adults. Methods: A retrospective cohort of AMI-CS admissions aged 18 to 55 years, during 2000 to 2017, was identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Use of coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, mechanical circulatory support and noncardiac interventions was identified. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, use of cardiac interventions, hospitalization costs, and length of stay. Results: A total 90 648 AMI-CS admissions ≤55 years of age were included, of which 26% were women. Higher rates of CS were noted in men (2.2% in 2000 to 4.8% in 2017) compared with women (2.6% in 2000 to 4.0% in 2017; P<0.001). Compared with men, women with AMI-CS were more frequently of Black race, from a lower socioeconomic status, with higher comorbidity, and admitted to rural and small hospitals (all P<0.001). Women had lower rates of ST-segment elevation presentation (73.0% versus 78.7%), acute noncardiac organ failure, cardiac arrest (34.3% versus 35.7%), and received less-frequent coronary angiography (78.3% versus 81.4%), early coronary angiography (49.2% versus 54.1%), percutaneous coronary intervention (59.2% versus 64.0%), and mechanical circulatory support (50.3% versus 59.2%; all P<0.001). Female sex was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (23.0% versus 21.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.07-1.16]; P<0.001). Women had lower hospitalization costs ($156 372±$198 452 versus $167 669±$208 577; P<0.001) but comparable lengths of stay compared with men. Conclusions: In young AMI-CS admissions, women are treated less aggressively and experience higher in-hospital mortality than men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E007154
JournalCirculation: Heart Failure
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020


  • adult
  • female
  • odds ratio
  • shock, cardiogenic
  • young adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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