Many neuro-ophthalmic diseases have a clear sex predilection, which is important to recognize in making the diagnosis based on risk stratification and understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. This review discusses the more common neuro-ophthalmic diseases with a female predilection, including idiopathic intracranial hypertension, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, meningioma, multiple sclerosis, migraine, breast-cancer associated neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, sarcoidosis, bisphosphonate-associated orbital inflammation, and pregnancy-related neuro-ophthalmic disorders. In addition, the male predominance in the clinical manifestation of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy is discussed. Lastly, the etiology of the sex discrepancies for each disease is explored.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience