Sex differences in characteristics of smokers with chronic pain undergoing multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation

W. Michael Hooten, Cynthia O. Townsend, Barbara K. Bruce, Yu Shi, David Oman Warner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective. The primary aim of this study was to determine the influence of sex and the interactions between sex and smoking status on the immediate treatment outcomes of patients undergoing multidisciplinary pain treatment. Design. A retrospective, repeated measures design. Setting. Multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation center at a tertiary referral medical center. Patients. The cohort (N = 1,241) included 928 women and 313 men of whom 313 were current smokers, 294 were former smokers and 634 were never smokers consecutively admitted from September 2003 through February 2007. Interventions. A 3-week outpatient multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation program. Outcome Measures. The Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale were administered at admission and dismissal. Results. Women experienced significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms compared with men (P = 0.023). Smokers experienced significantly greater improvements in depression (P = 0.039), pain catastrophizing (P = 0.010), and anxiety (P = 0.037) compared with former and never smokers. No significant interaction effects between treatment by sex by smoking status were observed. A significant sex by smoking status interaction was observed for daily morphine equivalent dose (mg/d) where male smokers consumed greater quantities of opioids compared with female smokers at program admission (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The effects of smoking status on the immediate treatment outcomes of multidisciplinary pain treatment are not modified by sex. However, women experienced significantly greater improvement in depression than men and male smokers consumed significantly greater quantities of opioids compared with female smokers at admission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1416-1425
Number of pages10
JournalPain Medicine
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2009

Fingerprint

Sex Characteristics
Chronic Pain
Rehabilitation
Pain
Smoking
Catastrophization
Depression
Opioid Analgesics
Anxiety
Pain Clinics
Rehabilitation Centers
Tertiary Care Centers
Morphine
Health Status
Epidemiologic Studies
Outpatients
Therapeutics
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Chronic pain
  • Sex differences
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Sex differences in characteristics of smokers with chronic pain undergoing multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation. / Hooten, W. Michael; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Shi, Yu; Warner, David Oman.

In: Pain Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 8, 11.2009, p. 1416-1425.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hooten, W. Michael ; Townsend, Cynthia O. ; Bruce, Barbara K. ; Shi, Yu ; Warner, David Oman. / Sex differences in characteristics of smokers with chronic pain undergoing multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation. In: Pain Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 10, No. 8. pp. 1416-1425.
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