There are marked sex differences in asthma prevalence and severity. Sex hormones play a central role in these sex biases and directly interact with multiple key cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here we review the known effects of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone on airway epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells, the mononuclear phagocyte system, innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils, mast cells, T cells, and B cells, all in the context of asthma. Furthermore, we explore unresolved clinical questions, such as the role of sex hormones in the link between asthma and obesity.
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