Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-104
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 16 2015

Fingerprint

Cognitive Reserve
Verbal Learning
Proxy
Cognitive Aging
Sex Characteristics
Cerebrovascular Disorders

Keywords

  • Aging
  • APOE
  • Memory
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Preclinical Alzheimer's disease
  • Sex and cognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language

Cite this

@article{6d66b16080ee493b94c853fb66b09d07,
title = "Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?",
abstract = "Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers.",
keywords = "Aging, APOE, Memory, Mild cognitive impairment, Preclinical Alzheimer's disease, Sex and cognition",
author = "Caselli, {Richard John} and Amylou Dueck and Locke, {Dona E} and Baxter, {Leslie C.} and Woodruff, {Bryan K} and Geda, {Yonas Endale}",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1017/S1355617715000016",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "21",
pages = "95--104",
journal = "Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society",
issn = "1355-6177",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging

T2 - A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

AU - Caselli, Richard John

AU - Dueck, Amylou

AU - Locke, Dona E

AU - Baxter, Leslie C.

AU - Woodruff, Bryan K

AU - Geda, Yonas Endale

PY - 2015/3/16

Y1 - 2015/3/16

N2 - Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers.

AB - Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers.

KW - Aging

KW - APOE

KW - Memory

KW - Mild cognitive impairment

KW - Preclinical Alzheimer's disease

KW - Sex and cognition

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84927697842&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84927697842&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S1355617715000016

DO - 10.1017/S1355617715000016

M3 - Article

C2 - 25665170

AN - SCOPUS:84927697842

VL - 21

SP - 95

EP - 104

JO - Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

JF - Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

SN - 1355-6177

IS - 2

ER -