Sex-Based Differences in Knee Kinetics With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain on Cadaveric Impact Simulations

Nathan Schilaty, Nathaniel A. Bates, Christopher Nagelli, Aaron Krych, Timothy Hewett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Females are at an increased risk of sustaining noncontact knee ligament injuries as compared with their male counterparts. The kinetics that load the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are still under dispute in the literature. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in knee kinetics between the sexes that lead to greater ACL strain in females when similar external loads are applied during a simulated drop vertical jump landing task. It was hypothesized that female limbs would demonstrate significant differences in knee abduction moment that predispose females to ACL injury when compared with males. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Motion analysis data of 67 athletes who performed a drop vertical jump were collected. The kinematic and kinetic data were used to categorize tertiles of relative risk, and these values were input into a cadaveric impact simulator to assess ligamentous loads during the simulated landing task. Uni- and multiaxial load cells and differential variable reluctance transducer strain sensors were utilized to collect kinetic data and maximum ACL strain for analysis. Conditions of external loads applied to the cadaveric limbs were systematically varied and randomized. Data were analyzed with 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and the Fisher exact test. Results: Five kinetic parameters were evaluated. Of the 5 kinetic variables, only knee abduction moment (KAM) demonstrated significant differences in females as compared with males (F1,136 = 4.398, P =.038). When normalized to height and weight, this difference between males and females increased in significance (F1,136 = 7.155, P =.008). Compared with males, females exhibited a 10.3-N·m increased knee abduction torque at 66 milliseconds postimpact and a 22.3-N·m increased abduction torque at 100 milliseconds postimpact. For loading condition, the condition of “maximum ACL strain” demonstrated a maximum difference of 54.3-N·m increased abduction torque and 74.5-N·m increased abduction torque at 66 milliseconds postimpact. Conclusion: Under the tested conditions, increased external loads led to increased medial knee translation force, knee abduction moment, and external knee moment. Females exhibited greater forces and moments at the knee, especially at KAM, when loaded in similar conditions. As these KAM loads are associated with increased load and strain on the ACL, the sex-based differences observed in the present study may account for a portion of the underlying mechanics that predispose females to ACL injury as compared with males in a controlled simulated athletic task. Clinical Relevance: KAM increases strain to the ACL under clinically representative loading. Additionally, this work establishes the biomechanical characteristics of knee loading between sexes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 9 2018

Fingerprint

Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Sex Characteristics
Knee
Torque
Extremities
Knee Injuries
Dissent and Disputes
Mechanics
Transducers
Ligaments
Biomechanical Phenomena
Athletes
Sports
Analysis of Variance

Keywords

  • anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
  • cadaveric
  • dynamic knee valgus
  • injury
  • kinetics
  • simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Sex-Based Differences in Knee Kinetics With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain on Cadaveric Impact Simulations. / Schilaty, Nathan; Bates, Nathaniel A.; Nagelli, Christopher; Krych, Aaron; Hewett, Timothy.

In: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 3, 09.03.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Females are at an increased risk of sustaining noncontact knee ligament injuries as compared with their male counterparts. The kinetics that load the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are still under dispute in the literature. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in knee kinetics between the sexes that lead to greater ACL strain in females when similar external loads are applied during a simulated drop vertical jump landing task. It was hypothesized that female limbs would demonstrate significant differences in knee abduction moment that predispose females to ACL injury when compared with males. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Motion analysis data of 67 athletes who performed a drop vertical jump were collected. The kinematic and kinetic data were used to categorize tertiles of relative risk, and these values were input into a cadaveric impact simulator to assess ligamentous loads during the simulated landing task. Uni- and multiaxial load cells and differential variable reluctance transducer strain sensors were utilized to collect kinetic data and maximum ACL strain for analysis. Conditions of external loads applied to the cadaveric limbs were systematically varied and randomized. Data were analyzed with 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and the Fisher exact test. Results: Five kinetic parameters were evaluated. Of the 5 kinetic variables, only knee abduction moment (KAM) demonstrated significant differences in females as compared with males (F1,136 = 4.398, P =.038). When normalized to height and weight, this difference between males and females increased in significance (F1,136 = 7.155, P =.008). Compared with males, females exhibited a 10.3-N·m increased knee abduction torque at 66 milliseconds postimpact and a 22.3-N·m increased abduction torque at 100 milliseconds postimpact. For loading condition, the condition of “maximum ACL strain” demonstrated a maximum difference of 54.3-N·m increased abduction torque and 74.5-N·m increased abduction torque at 66 milliseconds postimpact. Conclusion: Under the tested conditions, increased external loads led to increased medial knee translation force, knee abduction moment, and external knee moment. Females exhibited greater forces and moments at the knee, especially at KAM, when loaded in similar conditions. As these KAM loads are associated with increased load and strain on the ACL, the sex-based differences observed in the present study may account for a portion of the underlying mechanics that predispose females to ACL injury as compared with males in a controlled simulated athletic task. Clinical Relevance: KAM increases strain to the ACL under clinically representative loading. Additionally, this work establishes the biomechanical characteristics of knee loading between sexes.",
keywords = "anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), cadaveric, dynamic knee valgus, injury, kinetics, simulation",
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AU - Hewett, Timothy

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N2 - Background: Females are at an increased risk of sustaining noncontact knee ligament injuries as compared with their male counterparts. The kinetics that load the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are still under dispute in the literature. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in knee kinetics between the sexes that lead to greater ACL strain in females when similar external loads are applied during a simulated drop vertical jump landing task. It was hypothesized that female limbs would demonstrate significant differences in knee abduction moment that predispose females to ACL injury when compared with males. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Motion analysis data of 67 athletes who performed a drop vertical jump were collected. The kinematic and kinetic data were used to categorize tertiles of relative risk, and these values were input into a cadaveric impact simulator to assess ligamentous loads during the simulated landing task. Uni- and multiaxial load cells and differential variable reluctance transducer strain sensors were utilized to collect kinetic data and maximum ACL strain for analysis. Conditions of external loads applied to the cadaveric limbs were systematically varied and randomized. Data were analyzed with 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and the Fisher exact test. Results: Five kinetic parameters were evaluated. Of the 5 kinetic variables, only knee abduction moment (KAM) demonstrated significant differences in females as compared with males (F1,136 = 4.398, P =.038). When normalized to height and weight, this difference between males and females increased in significance (F1,136 = 7.155, P =.008). Compared with males, females exhibited a 10.3-N·m increased knee abduction torque at 66 milliseconds postimpact and a 22.3-N·m increased abduction torque at 100 milliseconds postimpact. For loading condition, the condition of “maximum ACL strain” demonstrated a maximum difference of 54.3-N·m increased abduction torque and 74.5-N·m increased abduction torque at 66 milliseconds postimpact. Conclusion: Under the tested conditions, increased external loads led to increased medial knee translation force, knee abduction moment, and external knee moment. Females exhibited greater forces and moments at the knee, especially at KAM, when loaded in similar conditions. As these KAM loads are associated with increased load and strain on the ACL, the sex-based differences observed in the present study may account for a portion of the underlying mechanics that predispose females to ACL injury as compared with males in a controlled simulated athletic task. Clinical Relevance: KAM increases strain to the ACL under clinically representative loading. Additionally, this work establishes the biomechanical characteristics of knee loading between sexes.

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KW - dynamic knee valgus

KW - injury

KW - kinetics

KW - simulation

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