Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and flares of systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal cohort analysis

Chi Chiu Mok, Eric T. Bro, Ling Yin Ho, Ravinder Jit Singh, Paul J. Jannetto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and SLE activity/flares over time. This is a longitudinal study of 276 patients who fulfilled ≥ 4 ACR criteria for SLE and recruited in the year 2011. Serum samples were collected at baseline and assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 at the end of a mean follow-up of 32.5 months. Participants were stratified into three groups according to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: group I (< 15 ng/ml, deficiency), group II (15–30 ng/ml, insufficiency), and group III (> 30 ng/ml, adequate). Baseline and summated SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score over time and the annual incidence of lupus flares were compared among these groups. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels of < 15, 15–30, and > 30 ng/ml were present in 26, 54, and 20% of the recruited patients, respectively. Group I had significantly higher baseline SLEDAI scores. After a follow-up of 32.5 ± 5.5 months, 153 mild/moderate and 91 severe flares developed. The mean summated SLEDAI was 3.2 ± 2.0 in group I, 2.4 ± 1.9 in group II and 2.7 ± 2.1 in group III patients (P = 0.02). The annual incidence of mild/moderate and severe flares was 0.26 ± 0.39 and 0.20 ± 0.45 (group I); 0.20 ± 0.33 and 0.09 ± 0.22 (group II); and 0.20 ± 0.32 and 0.14 ± 0.46 (group III), respectively (P > 0.05). In a subgroup of 73 patients who were clinically and serologically quiescent at baseline, a similar trend of more flares was observed in group I patients. Vitamin D deficiency was frequent in Chinese SLE patients and was associated with more active disease at baseline and over time, as well as a trend of more severe lupus flares.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Rheumatology
StateAccepted/In press - Jul 16 2018


  • Cholecalciferol
  • Damage
  • Disease activity
  • Flares
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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