This chapter describes a diverse variety of systemic disorders that can provoke a seizure. There are two basic types of seizures: generalized and focal. The former results from a diffuse disruption of homeostasis in the body, disrupting the brain's ability to balance excitatory and inhibitory potentials. The second is a result of a focal insult to the brain itself, whether it be through breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, inflammation, or otherwise. Discovering which of these two final pathways leads to seizures can help lead to the cause of a patient's presentation. If a systemic disorder is identified, in many cases, treating underlying cause can alleviate seizures. Systemic disorders discussed in the chapter include endocrine disorders, electrolyte disorders, autoimmune disorders, organ dysfunction and failure, and cancer and paraneoplastic disorders. The chapter also describes systemic infections that may lead to the development of seizures.
- Systemic disorders
ASJC Scopus subject areas