Objective: To provide precise description of the dorsal and ventral roots orientation along with the main spinal cord anatomical measurements and their segment-specific variations. Patients and Methods: We collected and analyzed the measurements of the spines, spinal cords, and dorsal and ventral roots (C2-L5) of nine adult cadavers (five males and four females). Results: This study for the first time provides analysis of the dorsal and ventral roots orientation along with spinal cord anatomical measurements and their segment-specific distribution. The results of this study showed less variability in rostral root angles compared with the caudal. Dorsal and ventral rootlets were oriented mostly perpendicular to the spinal cord at the cervical level and had more parallel orientation to the spinal cord at the thoracic and lumbar segments. The number of rootlets per root was greatest at dorsal cervical and lumbar segments. Spinal cord transverse diameter and width of the dorsal columns were largest at cervical segments. The strongest correlation between the spinal cord and vertebrae structures was found between the length of intervertebral foramen to rostral rootlet distance and vertebral bone length. Conclusion: These results demonstrate consistent variation in spinal cord anatomical features across all tested subjects. The results of this study can be used to locate spinal roots and main spinal cord landmarks based on bone marks on computed tomography or X-rays. These results could improve stereotactic surgical procedures and electrode positioning for neuromodulation procedures.
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