In this study we report that R-etodolac (SDX-101), at clinically relevant concentrations, induces potent cytotoxicity in drug-sensitive multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, as well as in dexamethasone (MM.1R)-, doxorubicin (Dox40/RPMI8226)-, and bortezomib (DHL4)-resistant cell lines. Immunoblot analysis demonstrates that R-etodolac induces apoptosis characterized by caspase-8, -9, and -3 and PARP (poly-ADP [adenosine diphosphate]-ribose polymerase) cleavage and down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression. Subcytotoxic doses of R-etodolac up-regulate myeloid cell leukemia-1 proapoptotic variant (Mcl-1s), while enhancing dexamethasone (Dex)-induced caspase activation and apoptosis. The combination of R-etodolac with Dex results in a highly synergistic cytotoxic effect. R-etodolac also induces apoptosis against primary cells isolated from patients with MM refractory to chemotherapy. Although interleukin 6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) abrogate Dex-induced MM cell cytotoxicity, neither IL-6 nor IGF-1 protects against R-etodolac-induced cytotoxicity in MM cells. R-etodolac also inhibits viability of MM cells adherent to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), thereby overcoming a mechanism of drug resistance commonly observed with other conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Our data, therefore, indicate that R-etodolac circumvents drug resistance in MM cells at clinically relevant concentrations, targets Mcl-1, and can be synergistically combined with Dex.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology