Background: Approximately 40–50% of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) initially present with distant metastases. Little is known about the outcomes of patients undergoing combined pancreatic and hepatic resections for this indication. Methods: Patients who underwent hepatectomy for metastatic pNETs at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 2000 to 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Major pancreatectomy was defined as pancreaticoduodenectomy or total pancreatectomy, and major hepatectomy as right hepatectomy or trisegmentectomy. Characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pancreatectomy with simultaneous hepatectomy were compared with those of patients who underwent isolated hepatectomy (with or without prior history of pancreatectomy). Results: 205 patients who underwent hepatectomy for metastatic pNETs were identified: 131 underwent pancreatectomy with simultaneous hepatectomy and 74 underwent isolated hepatectomy. Among patients undergoing simultaneous hepatectomy, 89 patients underwent minor pancreatectomy with minor hepatectomy, 11 patients underwent major pancreatectomy with minor hepatectomy, 30 patients underwent minor pancreatectomy with major hepatectomy, and 1 patient underwent major pancreatectomy with major hepatectomy. Patients undergoing simultaneous hepatectomy had more numerous liver lesions (10 or more lesions in 54% vs. 34%, p = 0.008), but the groups were otherwise similar. Rates of any major complications (31% versus 24%, p = 0.43), hepatectomy-specific complications such as bile leak, hemorrhage, and liver failure (0.8–7.6% vs. 1.4–12%, p = 0.30–0.99), and 90-day mortality (1.5% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.62) were similar between the two groups. 5-year overall survival was 64% after combined resections and 65% after isolated hepatectomy (p = 0.93). Conclusion: For patients with metastatic pNETs, combined pancreatic and hepatic resections can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality in selected patients at high-volume institutions.
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