Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle

Fernando Tondato, Jane Bazzell, Linda Schwartz, Bruce W. Mc Donald, Robert Fisher, S. Shawn Anderson, Arcenio Galindo, Amylou Dueck, Luis Scott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. Objective This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Methods and results Thirty patients (73 ± 9 y/o; 80% male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid®. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09 A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5 V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. Conclusion It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-324
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Volume227
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2017

Fingerprint

Implantable Defibrillators
Electromagnetic Phenomena
Patient Safety
Deceleration
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Electromagnetic interference
  • Hybrid car
  • Implantable-cardioverter defibrillator
  • Pacemaker

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle. / Tondato, Fernando; Bazzell, Jane; Schwartz, Linda; Mc Donald, Bruce W.; Fisher, Robert; Anderson, S. Shawn; Galindo, Arcenio; Dueck, Amylou; Scott, Luis.

In: International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 227, 15.01.2017, p. 318-324.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tondato, Fernando ; Bazzell, Jane ; Schwartz, Linda ; Mc Donald, Bruce W. ; Fisher, Robert ; Anderson, S. Shawn ; Galindo, Arcenio ; Dueck, Amylou ; Scott, Luis. / Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle. In: International Journal of Cardiology. 2017 ; Vol. 227. pp. 318-324.
@article{e148df73f2114312bf5915f6311dfe52,
title = "Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle",
abstract = "Background Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. Objective This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Methods and results Thirty patients (73 ± 9 y/o; 80{\%} male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid{\circledR}. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS{\circledR} model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09 A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5 V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. Conclusion It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers.",
keywords = "Electromagnetic interference, Hybrid car, Implantable-cardioverter defibrillator, Pacemaker",
author = "Fernando Tondato and Jane Bazzell and Linda Schwartz and {Mc Donald}, {Bruce W.} and Robert Fisher and Anderson, {S. Shawn} and Arcenio Galindo and Amylou Dueck and Luis Scott",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.090",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "227",
pages = "318--324",
journal = "International Journal of Cardiology",
issn = "0167-5273",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle

AU - Tondato, Fernando

AU - Bazzell, Jane

AU - Schwartz, Linda

AU - Mc Donald, Bruce W.

AU - Fisher, Robert

AU - Anderson, S. Shawn

AU - Galindo, Arcenio

AU - Dueck, Amylou

AU - Scott, Luis

PY - 2017/1/15

Y1 - 2017/1/15

N2 - Background Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. Objective This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Methods and results Thirty patients (73 ± 9 y/o; 80% male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid®. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09 A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5 V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. Conclusion It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers.

AB - Background Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. Objective This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Methods and results Thirty patients (73 ± 9 y/o; 80% male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid®. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09 A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5 V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. Conclusion It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers.

KW - Electromagnetic interference

KW - Hybrid car

KW - Implantable-cardioverter defibrillator

KW - Pacemaker

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85004115543&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85004115543&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.090

DO - 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.090

M3 - Article

VL - 227

SP - 318

EP - 324

JO - International Journal of Cardiology

JF - International Journal of Cardiology

SN - 0167-5273

ER -