Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are commonly associated. Cotreatment with multiple antithrombotic agents can increase the risk of bleeding. We sought to evaluate patient-centered outcomes in patients with AF on double therapy with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) compared to patients with standard triple therapy, [a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) plus dual antiplatelet therapy]. Methods: We performed a literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting outcomes of patients receiving double therapy with DOACs compared to triple therapy with VKAs in patients with AF undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patient-centered outcomes were the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (CRNB), all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Results: Four RCTs (9602 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Compared to VKAs, DOACs were associated with significantly lower ISTH major bleeding/ CRNB (RR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.82, P <.00001, I2 = 11%). There were no statistically significant differences in the efficacy outcomes, including myocardial infarction (RR: 0.99, 95% CI :0.79-1.25, P =.96), stent thrombosis (RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.6-1.55, P =.89), ischemic stroke (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.5-1.15, P =.19), all-cause mortality (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.85-1.31, P =.61), and MACE (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.91-1.22, P =.97). Conclusion: Compared with triple therapy with VKAS, double therapy with DOACs is associated with a reduced risk of bleeding and is as effective in patients with AF undergoing PCI.
- atrial fibrillation
- direct oral anticoagulants
- percutaneous coronary intervention
- vitamin K antagonists
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine