In addition to the vaccines due in the first year of life, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that children continue to receive vaccines regularly against a variety of infectious diseases. Starting at 12 to 15 months of life, these include the two-dose measles-mumps-rubella vaccine series and the two-dose varicella vaccine series. Also in the second year of life, infants should begin the two-dose hepatitis A vaccine series and complete the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine series as well as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine series. Before 19 months of life, infants should receive the third dose of the poliovirus vaccine and the fourth dose of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. The final doses of poliovirus and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines are both due at 4 to 6 years of life. Before each influenza season, every child should receive the influenza vaccine. Those less than 9 years of age who previously received less than two doses need two doses a month apart. At 11 to 12 years of life, all should get two doses of the human papillomavirus vaccine, the adolescent/adult version of the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine, and begin a two-dose series of meningococcal ACWY vaccine. Each of these vaccines is due when the vaccine works to protect against both an immediate risk as well as to provide long-term protection. Each vaccine-preventable disease varies in terms of the nature of exposure, the form of the morbidity, the risk of mortality, and potential to prevent or ameliorate its harm.
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