Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) and 99mTc-HYNIC PEG liposomes (HPL) were reported earlier to cause hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in a substantial percentage of patients treated i.v. with these formulations. Here we report that (1) Doxil, HPL, pegylated phosphati-dylethanolamine (PEG-PE)-containing empty liposomes matched with Doxil and HPL in size and lipid composition, and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)-containing negatively charged vesicles were potent C activators in human serum in vitro, whereas small neutral liposomes caused no C activation. (2) Doxil and other size-matched PEG-PE and/or PG-containing liposomes also caused massive cardiopulmonary distress with anaphylactoid shock in pigs via C activation, whereas equivalent neutral liposomes caused no hemodynamic changes. (3) A clinical study showed more frequent and greater C activation in patients displaying HSR than in non-reactive patients. These data suggest that liposome-induced HSRs in susceptible individuals may be due to C activation, which, in turn, is due to the presence of negatively charged PEG-PE in these vesicles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science