Role of body fat distribution and the metabolic complications of obesity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

355 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: An upper body/visceral fat distribution in obesity is closely linked with metabolic complications, whereas increased lower body fat is independently predictive of reduced cardiovascular risk. Evidence Acquisition: The measured functions of different fat depots with regards to fatty acid storage and release in health and obesity were reviewed. The adverse effects of experimentally increasing free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on liver, muscle, pancreatic β-cell, and endothelial function were noted. Evidence Synthesis: The most dramatic abnormality in FFA metabolism is failure to suppress FFA concentrations/adipose tissue lipolysis normally in response to postprandial hyperinsulinemia. Upper body sc fat delivers the majority of FFA to the systemic circulation under postabsorptive and postprandial conditions. In upper body obesity, portal FFA concentrations resulting from both systemic and visceral adipose tissue lipolysis may be significantly greater than arterial FFA concentrations, exposing the liver to even greater amounts of FFA. Visceral fat also releases sufficient IL-6 to increase portal vein IL-6 concentrations, which can affect hepatic metabolism as well. Conclusions: Lower body, upper body sc, and visceral fat depots have unique characteristics with regards to fatty acid metabolism. Selective dysregulation of these depots probably plays an important role with the metabolic complications of obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume93
Issue number11 SUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2008

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Body Fat Distribution
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Obesity
Fats
Intra-Abdominal Fat
Metabolism
Lipolysis
Liver
Adipose Tissue
Interleukin-6
Fatty Acids
Tissue
Hyperinsulinism
Portal Vein
Muscle Cells
Muscle
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Role of body fat distribution and the metabolic complications of obesity. / Jensen, Michael Dennis.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 93, No. 11 SUPPL. 1, 11.2008.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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