Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematologic malignancies in persons living with HIV (PLHIV), however, uncertainties exist in many domains related to their care, including optimal donor selection, conditioning regimen, immunosuppression for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term outcomes. We undertook a comprehensive systematic review from multiple databases to evaluate the foregoing uncertainties. The final sample comprised 49 patients (median age at HCT, 34 years; 46 males [93.8%]). Acute GVHD (aGVHD) was reported in 19 patients (59.3%) in the overall cohort, with grade II in 12 (37.5%) and grade III in 2 (6.2%). In the entire cohort, overall survival (OS) was 81.6% at 6 months and 56.6% at 12 months. Among 32 patients, the OS at 6 months was 73.3% for patients who received myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and 88.2% for those who received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), and OS at 12 months was 53.3% for MAC and 58.8% for RIC. Twenty-four patients were alive in complete remission on long-term follow-up, with 25 deaths reported. Fifteen deaths (60%) occurred due to relapse, including 3 (12%) from infection, 2 (8%) from GVHD, and 5 (20%) from other causes, including renal failure, respiratory failure, and liver failure. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of allo-HCT in PLHIV reported to date, and our results indicate that clinical outcomes (including engraftment, infection rate, and survival) are not significantly different from those in patients without HIV (historical controls). RIC regimens are associated with a slightly greater likelihood of survival compared with MAC regimens. Prospective trials are critically needed to evaluate the optimal conditioning regimens, ideal donor source, and most appropriate GVHD prophylaxis.
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