It is unknown whether individuals with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) are at risk for adverse outcomes associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), such as the risk of non-hematologic cancer. We identified all locally residing individuals diagnosed with high-count MBL at Mayo Clinic between 1999 and 2009 and compared their rates of non-hematologic cancer with that of patients with CLL and two control cohorts: general medicine patients and patients who underwent clinical evaluation with flow cytometry but who had no hematologic malignancy. After excluding individuals with prior cancers, there were 107 high-count MBL cases, 132 CLL cases, 589 clinic controls and 482 flow cytometry controls. With 4.6 years median follow-up, 14 (13%) individuals with high-count MBL, 21 (4%) clinic controls (comparison MBL P<0.0001), 18 (4%) flow controls (comparison MBL P=0.0001) and 16 (12%) CLL patients (comparison MBL P=0.82) developed non-hematologic cancer. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, individuals with high-count MBL had higher risk of non-hematologic cancer compared with flow controls (hazard ratio (HR)=2.36; P=0.04) and borderline higher risk compared with clinic controls (HR=2.00; P=0.07). Patients with high-count MBL appear to be at increased risk for non-hematologic cancer, further reinforcing that high-count MBL has a distinct clinical phenotype despite low risk of progression to CLL.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research