Objective: To investigate the combined ability of hippocampal volumes, H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolites, and cerebrovascular disease to predict the risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We identified 151 consecutively recruited subjects with MCI from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and Patient Registry who underwent MRI and H MRS studies at baseline and were followed up with approximately annual clinical examinations. A multivariable proportional hazards model that considered all imaging predictors simultaneously was used to determine whether hippocampal volumes, posterior cingulate gyrus H MRS metabolites, white matter hyperintensity load, and presence of cortical and subcortical infarctions are complementary in predicting the risk of progression from MCI to dementia. Results: Seventy-five subjects with MCI progressed to dementia by last follow-up. The model that best predicted progression to dementia included age, sex, hippocampal volumes, N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) on H MRS, and cortical infarctions. Based on age- and sex-adjusted Kaplan-Meier plots, we estimated that by 3 years, 26% of the MCI patients with normal hippocampal volumes, NAA/Cr ratios >1 SD, and no cortical infarctions will progress to dementia, compared with 78% of the MCI patients with hippocampal atrophy, low NAA/Cr (≤1 SD), and cortical infarction. Conclusions: Multiple magnetic resonance (MR) markers of underlying dementia pathologies improve the ability to identify patients with prodromal dementia over a single MR marker, supporting the concept that individuals with multiple brain pathologies have increased odds of dementia compared with individuals with a single pathology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology