Biological sex and changes in sex hormones throughout life influence all aspects of health and disease. In women, changes in sex hormonal status reflect ovarian function, pregnancy and the use of exogenous hormonal treatments. Longitudinal data from defined cohorts of women will help to identify mechanisms by which the hormonal milieu contributes to cerebrovascular ageing, brain structure and ultimately cognition. This review summarises the phenotypes of three cohorts of women identified through the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo Clinic Specialized Center of Research Excellence (SCORE) on Sex Differences: (i) menopausal women with histories of normotensive or hypertensive pregnancies; (ii) women who had bilateral oophorectomy ≤45 years of age; and (iii) women who experienced natural menopause and used menopausal hormone treatments for 4 years. Data from these cohorts will influence the design of follow-up studies concerning how sex hormonal status affects neurovascular ageing in women.
- aortic blood pressure
- brain volume
- white matter hyperintensities
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience