Risk Factors for Long-term Hip Osteoarthritis in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement Without Surgical Intervention

Heath P. Melugin, Rena F. Hale, Jun Zhou, Matthew LaPrade, Christopher Bernard, Devin Leland, Bruce A. Levy, Aaron J. Krych

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common cause of hip pain and a known risk factor for hip osteoarthritis (OA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) at a young age. Unfortunately, little is known about the specific factors associated with an increased risk of OA. Purpose: To (1) report the overall rate of symptomatic hip OA and/or THA in patients with FAI without surgical intervention and (2) identify radiographic features and patient characteristics associated with hip OA. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A geographic database was used to identify all patients with hip pain and radiographs between 2000 and 2016. Chart review was performed to identify patients with FAI. Patient medical records were reviewed to obtain demographic information, clinical history, physical examination findings, imaging details, and treatment details. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine the rate of hip OA. Univariate and multivariate proportional hazard regression models were performed to determine risk factors for OA. Results: The study included 952 patients (649 female; 303 male; 1104 total hips) with FAI. The majority of hips had mixed type (n = 785; 71.1%), 211 (19.1%) had pincer type, and 108 (9.8%) had cam type. Mean age at time of presentation was 27.6 ± 8.7 years. Mean follow-up time was 24.7 ± 12.5 years. The rate of OA was 13.5%. THA was performed in 4% of patients. Male sex, body mass index (BMI) greater than 29, and increased age were risk factors for OA (male sex: hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; P <.01; BMI >29: HR, 2.11; P <.01; per year of increased age: HR, 1.11; P <.01.). Smoking and diabetes mellitus were not significant risk factors. No radiographic morphological features were found to be significant risk factors for OA. Conclusion: At mean follow-up of 24.7 years, 14% of hips had symptomatic OA and 4% underwent THA. BMI greater than 29, male sex, and increased age at the time of presentation with hip pain were risk factors for hip OA. The cohort consisted of a large percentage of mixed-type FAI morphologies, and no specific radiographic risk factors for OA were identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • FAI
  • femoroacetabular impingement
  • hip pain
  • osteoarthritis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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