Visual loss (acuity or field) secondary to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is a rare but devastating complication of cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We determined clinical features and risk factors for ION by a retrospective time-matched, case-control study. ION was identified in 17 (0.06%) patients out of 27,915 patients who underwent CPB between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1994. For each ION patient, two patients who underwent CPB exactly 2 wk before the ION patient were selected as controls. Data were analyzed by using conditional logistic regression with the 1:2 matched-set feature of 17 cases and 34 controls. Two-tailed P values ≤0.05 were considered significant. From bivariate analysis, smaller minimum postoperative hemoglobin concentration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, P = 0.047) and the presence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (OR = 7.0, P = 0.026) were found to be independently associated with ION after CPB, as were smaller minimum postoperative hemoglobin concentration (OR = 2.2, P = 0.027) and preoperative angiogram within 48 h of surgery (OR = 7.2, P = 0.042). In ION patients, 13 (76.5%) of 17 experienced a minimum postoperative hemoglobin value of <8.5 g/dL, whereas only 14 (41.2%) of 34 control patients experienced values <8.5 g/dL.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine