Risk Factors for Heart Failure in the Community: Differences by Age and Ejection Fraction

Alanna M. Chamberlain, Cynthia M. Boyd, Sheila M. Manemann, Shannon M. Dunlay, Yariv Gerber, Jill M. Killian, Susan A. Weston, Véronique L. Roger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Differences in comorbid conditions in patients with heart failure compared with population controls, and whether differences exist by type of heart failure or age, have not been well documented. Methods: The prevalence of 17 chronic conditions were obtained in 2643 patients with incident heart failure from 2000 to 2013 and controls matched 1:1 on sex and age from Olmsted County, Minnesota. Logistic regression determined associations of each condition with heart failure. Results: Among 2643 matched pairs (mean age 76.2 years, 45.6% men), the comorbidities with the largest attributable risk of heart failure were arrhythmia (48.7%), hypertension (28.4%), and coronary artery disease (33.9%); together these explained 73.0% of heart failure. Similar associations were observed for patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction, with the exception of hypertension. The risk of heart failure attributable to hypertension was 2-fold higher in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (38.7%) than in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (17.8%). Hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and diabetes were more strongly associated with heart failure in younger (≤75 years) compared to older (>75 years) persons. Conclusions: Patients with heart failure have a higher prevalence of many chronic conditions than controls. Similar associations were observed in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction, with the exception of hypertension, which was more strongly associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Finally, some cardiometabolic risk factors were more strongly associated with heart failure in younger persons, highlighting the importance of optimizing prevention and treatment of risk factors and, in particular, cardiometabolic risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e237-e248
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Volume133
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2020

Keywords

  • Case-control study
  • Heart failure
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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