Reverse dynamisation: A modern perspective on stephan perren’s strain theory

V. Glatt, C. H. Evans, K. Tetsworth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present review acknowledges the tremendous impact of Stephan Perren’s strain theory, considered with respect to the earlier contributions of Roux and Pauwels. Then, it provides further insight by examining how the concept of reverse dynamisation extended Perren’s theory within a modern context. A key factor of this more contemporary theory is that it introduces variable mechanical conditions at different time points during bone healing, opening the possibility of manipulating biology through mechanics to achieve the desired clinical outcome. The discussion focusses on the current state of the art and the most recent advances made towards optimising and accelerating bone regeneration, by actively controlling the mechanical environment as healing progresses. Reverse dynamisation utilises a very specific mechanical manipulation regimen, with conditions initially flexible to encourage and expedite early callus formation. Once callus has formed, the mechanical conditions are intentionally modified to create a rigid environment under which the soft callus is quickly converted to hard callus, bridging the fracture site and leading to a more rapid union. The relevant literature, principally animal studies, was surveyed to provide ample evidence in support of the effectiveness of reverse dynamisation. By providing a modern perspective on Stephan Perren’s strain theory, reverse dynamisation perhaps holds the key to tipping the balance in favour of a more rapid and reliable union when treating acute fractures, osteotomies, non-unions and other circumstances where it is necessary to regenerate bone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)668-679
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Cells and Materials
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Animal models
  • Bone healing
  • Dynamisation
  • Fixation stability
  • Fracture healing
  • Interfragmentary strain theory
  • Mechanical environment
  • Reverse dynamisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Cell Biology


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