Methods: Between November 1985 and July 1995, 36 patients underwent allograft aortic valve replacement for endocarditis. The mean age of the 29 men and seven women was 53 years (range 25 to 79 years). Previous procedures included mechanical (n = 9), bioprosthetic (n = 5), and allograft (n = 2) aortic valve replacement, aortic valvotomy (n = 1), and orthotopic heart transplantation (n = 1). Infecting organisms were Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species in 69% of patients and fungi in 6%. Intraoperative findings demonstrated valvular vegetations (n = 25), annular abscesses (n = 25), and cusp destruction (n = 13). Complex reconstruction of the aortic anulus was required in 25 patients, and associated procedures included mitral valve repair (n = 2), mitral valve replacement (n = 3), coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 8), repair of ventricular septal defect (n =4), left ventricular aneurysmectomy (n = 1), and repair of atrial septal defect (n = 1). Allograft valve insertion was performed by the scalloped technique in seven, intraaortic cylinder technique in 19, and allograft aortic root replacement in 10. Results: Follow-up was 100% complete at a mean of 2.6 ± 2.8 years after valve replacement. Operative mortality was 13.8%. Complications included low cardiac output (n = 10), bleeding (n = 2), myocardial infarction (n = 1), stroke (n = 1), renal insufficiency (n = 2), respiratory insufficiency (n = 3), and heart block (n = 8). Late echocardiogram (mean 2.6 ± 1.8 years) demonstrated grade III/IV aortic regurgitation in live patients. There were seven late deaths (five cardiac, not valve-related; two noncardiac). No patient has had recurrence of endocarditis. Actuarial survival at 5 years was 53.1% ± 11.5%. Univariate analysis demonstrated prosthetic valve endocarditis to adversely affect late survival (p = 0.04). Cumulative risk of reoperation at 5 years was 8.0% ± 5.6%. Conclusion: Allograft aortic valve replacement facilitated reconstruction of complex aortic valve endocarditis with a low reoperation rate and no recurrent endocarditis in this series.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine