Rates of restenosis were evaluated in 70 patients (74 lesions) after successful directional coronary atherectomy. The extent of vascular tissue resection was correlated with restenosis rates for coronary (n = 59) and vein bypass graft (n = 15) lesions. After 6 months, the overall restenosis rate was 50% (37 of 74 lesions); it was 42% (15 of 36 lesions) when intima alone was resected, 50% (7 of 14 lesions) when media was resected and 63% (15 of 24 lesions) when adventitia was resected. Subintimal tissue resection increased the restenosis rate for vein grafts (43% with intimal resection versus 100% with subintimal resection, p = 0.01) but not for coronary arteries (50% versus 48%). There was no overall difference in restenosis rates after atherectomy between primary lesions and restenosis lesions that occurred after balloon angioplasty (46% versus 54%). Among postballoon angioplasty restenosis lesions, a higher rate of restenosis after atherectomy was found with subintimal than with intimal resection (78% versus 32%, p = 0.01). Tissues from patients undergoing a second atherectomy for restenosis after initial atherectomy (n = 8) demonstrated neointimal hyperplasia that appeared histotogically identical to restenotic tissue developing after balloon angioplasty (n = 37). These data suggest that the cellular response to directional coronary atherectomy is characterized by neointimal proliferation similar to that which may develop after balloon angioplasty. The extent of fibrous hyperplasia appears to be related to the depth of tissue resection in vein graft lesions and coronary artery restenosis lesions that occur after balloon angioplasty but not in primary atheromatous coronary artery lesions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine