Residential treatment for smokeless tobacco use: A case series

Jon O. Ebbert, Lowell C. Dale, Kristin S. Vickers, Thomas R. Gauvin, Nadene E. Bunge, Richard D. Hurt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We developed and implemented a novel 8-day residential treatment program for smokeless tobacco (ST) use. A multidisciplinary team delivered behavioral treatment, nicotine patches were adjusted to achieve 100% replacement of baseline peak serum nicotine concentrations, and bupropion sustained-release was prescribed. Mean participant age (± SD) was 47.4 ± 18.2 years. Mean nicotine patch dose at program end was 43.2 mg/day ± 13.9 (range 14 to 66 mg/d). Median percent replacement by serum nicotine concentrations was 86.6% (IQR: 75-113.8%). At 1 year, the biochemically-confirmed (urine anabasine <2.0 ng/mL) self-reported 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence rate was 58% (14/24). A residential treatment program for ST users may be effective. More research is needed to replicate our findings and determine if comparable abstinence rates can be achieved with outpatient ST treatment programs using similar behavioral and pharmacotherapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-267
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2004


  • Behavioral therapy
  • Bupropion
  • Residential treatment
  • Smokeless tobacco
  • Tobacco use cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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