Resampling the N9741 trial to compare tumor dynamic versus conventional end points in randomized phase II trials

Manish R. Sharma, Elizabeth Gray, Richard M. Goldberg, Daniel J. Sargent, Theodore G. Karrison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Purpose: The optimal end point for randomized phase II trials of anticancer therapies remains controversial We simulated phase II trials by resampling patients from N9741, a randomized phase III trial of chemotherapy regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer, and compared the power of various end points to detect the superior therapy (FOLFOX [infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin] had longer overall survival than both IROX [irinotecan plus oxaliplatin] and IFL [irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil plus leucovorin]) Methods: Tumor measurements and progression-free survival (PFS) data were obtained for 1,471 patients; 1,002 had consistently measured tumors and were resampled (5,000 replicates) to simulate two-arm, randomized phase II trials with α = 0.10 (one sided) and 20 to 80 patients per arm. End points included log ratio of tumor size at 6, 12, and 18 weeks relative to baseline; time to tumor growth (TTG), estimated using a nonlinear mixed-effects model; and PFS. Arms were compared using rank sum tests for log ratio and TTG and a log-rank test for PFS Results: For FOLFOX versus IFL, TTG and PFS had similar power, with both exceeding the power of log ratio at 18 weeks; for FOLFOX versus IROX, TTG and log ratio at 18 weeks had similar power, with both exceeding the power of PFS. The best end points exhibited > 80% power with 60 to 80 patients per arm Conclusion: TTG is a powerful end point for randomized phase II trials of cytotoxic therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer; it was either comparable or superior to PFS and log ratio at 18 weeks. Additional studies will be needed to clarify the potential of TTG as a phase II end point.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-41
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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