INTRODUCTION: Untreated symptomatic celiac disease (CD) adversely affects female reproduction; however, the effect of hidden CD autoimmunity is uncertain. METHODS: We identified women who were not previously diagnosed with CD and tested positive for tissue transglutaminase and endomysial antibodies between 2006 and 2011 in a community-based retrospective cohort study. We evaluated (i) the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes and medical complications of pregnancy in successful singleton deliveries and (ii) reproductive characteristics in seropositive women without a clinical diagnosis of CD and age-matched seronegative women. RESULTS: Among 17,888 women whose serum samples were tested for CD autoimmunity, 215 seropositive and 415 seronegative women were included. We reviewed 231 and 509 live singleton deliveries of 117 seropositive and 250 seronegative mothers, respectively. Menarche and menopausal age, gravidity, parity, and age at first child were similar in seropositive and seronegative women. CD seropositivity was not associated with an increased risk of maternal pregnancy complications. Maternal seropositivity was associated with small for gestational age in boys (OR 3.77, 95% CI: 1.47-9.71; P = 0.006), but not in girls (OR 0.57, 95% CI: 0.15-2.17; P = 0.41). CD serum positivity was not associated with prematurity, small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile), or 5-minute Apgar score of less than 7. DISCUSSION: Although underpowered, the present study did not show any difference in reproductive characteristics or rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with and without CD autoimmunity, except for birth weight in male offspring. Larger studies are needed to determine the effects of CD autoimmunity on female reproduction.
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