Objectives: This study sought to report the largest series of patients receiving a surgical reoperation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database. Background: TAVR has become an effective means of treating aortic stenosis. As TAVR is used in progressively lower-risk cohorts, management of device failure will become increasingly important. Methods: The STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was queried for patients with a history of prior TAVR undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement from 2011 to 2015. Observed-to-expected (O/E) mortality ratios were determined to facilitate comparison across reoperative indications and timing from index TAVR procedure. Results: A total of 123 patients met inclusion criteria (median age 77 years) with an STS Predicted Risk of Mortality of 4%, 4% to 8%, and >8% in 17%, 24%, and 59%, respectively. Median time to reoperation was 2.5 (interquartile range: 0.7 to 13.0) months, and the operative mortality rate was 17.1%. Common indications for reoperation included early TAVR device failures such as paravalvular leak (15%), structural prosthetic deterioration (11%), failed repair (11%), sizing or position issues (11%), and prosthetic valve endocarditis (10%). All pre-operative risk categories were associated with an increased O/E mortality ratio (Predicted Risk of Mortality <4%: O/E 5.5; 4% to 8%: O/E 1.7; >8%: O/E 1.2). Conclusions: SAVR following early failure of TAVR, while rare, is associated with worse-than-expected outcomes as compared with similar patients initially undergoing SAVR. Continued experience with this developing technology is needed to reduce the incidence of early TAVR failure and further define optimal treatment of failed TAVR prostheses.
- device failure
- surgical aortic valve replacement
- transcatheter aortic valve replacement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine