Background: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty with high-dose antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacer and intravenous (IV) antibiotics is the most common method of managing infected total hip arthroplasties. However, the contemporary incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injuries (AKIs) in this cohort are unknown. Methods: We identified 227 patients treated with 256 antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers after resection of an infected primary total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2017. Mean age was 65 years, mean body mass index was 30 mg/kg2, 55% were men, and 16% had pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Spacers were in situ for a mean of 15 weeks, concomitantly associated with IV or oral antibiotics for a mean of 6 weeks. AKI was defined as a creatinine ≥1.5X baseline or ≥0.3 mg/dL. Mean follow-up was 8 years. Results: AKI occurred in 13 patients without pre-existing CKD (7%) vs 10 patients with CKD (28%; OR 5; P = .0001). None required acute dialysis. Postoperative fluid depletion (β = 0.31; P = .0001), ICU requirement (β = 0.40; P = .0001), and acute atrial fibrillation (β = 0.43; P = .0001) were independent predictors for AKI in patients without pre-existing CKD. Duration of in situ spacer, mean antibiotic dose in cement, use of amphotericin B, and type of IV antibiotics were not significant risk factors. At last follow-up, 8 AKIs progressed to CKD, with one receiving dialysis 7 years later. Conclusion: AKIs occurred in 7% of patients with normal renal function, with 5-fold greater risk in those with CKD, and 4% did develop CKD. Importantly, causes of acute renal blood flow impairment were independent predictors for AKI. Level of Evidence: Level III, comparative study.
- acute kidney disease
- chronic kidney disease
- periprosthetic joint infections
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine