In the phase 3 ENDEAVOR study, carfilzomib-dexamethasone (Kd) improved survival over bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), regardless of baseline renal function. This real-world study compared renal response in patients with RRMM (1-3 prior lines) and renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate #50 mL/min) treated with Kd vs Vd. Electronic medical records data from the Oncology Services Comprehensive Electronic Records database were assessed (from January 2012 through February 2018). Time to renal response (defined according to International Myeloma Working Group criteria) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for renal overall response (ROR) and renal complete response (RCR) using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for baseline covariates. Included were 543 Kdtreated and 1005 Vd-treated patients. In line 2 (2L), compared with Vd, Kd achieved significantly higher ROR (51.4% vs 39.6%; P <.0001) and RCR (26.6% vs 22.2%; P =0229). After baseline covariate adjustment, 2L patients receiving Kd vs Vd were 45% more likely to achieve ROR (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18-1.78), and 68% were more likely to achieve RCR (IRR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24-2.28). The renal response benefit with Kd remained consistent in 2L to line 4 (4L). In a combined analysis of patients receiving Kd and Vd (2L and 2L-4L), renal responders had longer overall survival and time to next treatment than renal nonresponders. These results demonstrate improved real-world effectiveness of Kd over Vd in RRMM renal rescue, and the positive association between renal response and improved survival.
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