Nutcracker syndrome is one of the abdominal venous entrapments, caused by compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. Occasionally a retro-aortic left renal vein is compressed between the aorta and the vertebral body (posterior nutcracker syndrome). The renal vein distal to the compression is dilated and renal venous flow can be diverted toward the pelvis through an incompetent, refluxing, left ovarian or spermatic vein, in addition to drainage through retroperitoneal venous collaterals. In this article, we describe the different surgical and endovascular techniques that are used to treat this syndrome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine