Objective: To study the clinical features and identify unique renal neoplasia subtypes and their prognostic implications in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Patients and Methods: The Mayo Clinic nephrectomy registry included 37 patients with TSC diagnosed between 1970 and 2018. Four additional patients were identified from the pathology consultation and autopsy files. All available renal tumors were further characterized using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinicopathologic features and follow-up were obtained from the medical record. The American Association for Cancer Research Project GENIE registry was accessed using cBioPortal for molecular profiling of angiomyolipoma (AML). Results: A total of 276 renal tumors from 41 patients were analyzed. Renal tumors were classified into 9 distinct morphological subtypes, with AML predominating (238 [86%]). Interestingly, all these tumors acted in a benign fashion except one renal cell carcinoma with clear cells and fibromyomatous stroma and one epithelioid AML that metastasized. Molecular profiling studies revealed that epithelioid AMLs were enriched for alterations of TP53, RB1, and ATRX. Eight patients died of direct complications of TSC, including 3 of end-stage renal disease. To date, none have died of a renal epithelial neoplasm. Conclusion: The identification of unique renal neoplasia subtypes may provide important clues to establish a diagnosis of TSC, and in the somatic setting, this finding has important implications for accurate prognostication. These tumors tend to be indolent, and only 2 of 276 tumors in our study exhibited metastatic behavior. Our results support multidisciplinary management with a focus on preservation of renal function.
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