To analyze the clinical characteristics of and identify specific risk factors for enterococcal bacteremia following liver transplantation, we performed a study in 405 consecutive liver transplantation recipients prophylaxed with a selective bowel decontamination regimen. Seventy enterococcal bacteremias in 52 patients were identified. Enterococcus faecalis (50) outnumbered Enterococcus faecium isolates (18), and 49% of enterococcal bacteremias were polymicrobial. Biliary tree complications were present in 34% of enterococcal bacteremias. Of the 15 deaths (29%) among the patients with enterococcal bacteremia, 4 were directly associated with enterococcal bacteremia. In a multivariate analysis, Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy (P=0.005), a cytomegalovirus-seropositive donor (P=0.013), prolonged transplantation time (P=0.02), and biliary structuring (P=0.016) were identified as significant risk factors. Other risk factors identified in a univariate analysis included primary sclerosing cholangitis (P=0.009) and symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection (P=0.008). Enterococcal bacteremia is a frequent infectious complication in liver transplantation recipients receiving selective bowel decontamination. Its association with cytomegalovirus and biliary tree abnormalities suggest specific areas for prophylactic intervention.
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