The reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, fludarabine and melphalan, is frequently used in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Melphalan and the active metabolite of fludarabine, F-ara-A, are excreted via the kidneys. Existing methods to assess clearance in this setting are based on serum creatinine, which has known limitations for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation in patients with malignancy. Measured GFR (mGFR) may better predict drug dosing to mitigate toxicity and increase the chances of successful engraftment. The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between mGFR and risk for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in patients who have undergone allogeneic HSCT receiving conditioning with fludarabine and melphalan. In the 109 included patients, mGFR <65 mL/min/1.73 m2 predicted a significantly higher rate of overall NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.35; P = 04) and 1-year incidence of infection (HR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.54-4.55; P < .001) in addition to a significantly lower 2-year survival (P = .019). Kidney function estimated via estimated GFR (eGFR) and estimated creatinine clearance did not correlate with posttransplant outcomes. These results suggest that mGFR is a promising approach for assessing clearance in patients who have undergone allogeneic HSCT and may be preferred to standard creatinine-based eGFR strategies.
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