Relationship between delay in performing direct coronary angioplasty and early clinical outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Results from the global use of strategies to open occluded arteries in acute coronary syndromes (GUSTO-IIb) trial

Peter B. Berger, Stephen G. Ellis, David R. Holmes, Christopher B. Granger, Douglas A. Criger, Amadeo Betriu, Eric J. Topol, Robert M. Califf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

468 Scopus citations


Background - Time to treatment with thrombolytic therapy is a critical determinant of mortality in acute myocardial infarction. Little is known about the relationship between the time to treatment with direct coronary angioplasty and clinical outcome. The objectives of this study were to determine both the time required to perform direct coronary angioplasty in the Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries in Acute Coronary Syndromes (GUSTO-IIb) trial and its relationship to clinical outcome. Methods and Results - Patients randomized to direct coronary angioplasty (n = 565) were divided into groups based on the time between study enrollment and first balloon inflation. Patients randomized to angioplasty who did not undergo the procedure were also analyzed. The median time from study enrollment to first balloon inflation was 76 minutes; 19% of patients assigned to angioplasty did not undergo an angioplasty procedure. The 30-day mortality rate of patients who underwent balloon inflation ≤60 minutes after study enrollment was 1.0%; 61 to 75 minutes after enrollment, 3.7%; 76 to 90 minutes after enrollment, 4.0%; and ≥91 minutes after enrollment, 6.4%. The mortality rate of patients assigned to angioplasty who never underwent the procedure was 14.1% (P = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the time from enrollment to first balloon inflation was a significant predictor of mortality within 30 days; after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, the odds of death increased 1.6 times (P = 0.008) for a movement from each time interval to the next. Conclusions - The time to treatment with direct PTCA, as with thrombolytic therapy, is a critical determinant of mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-20
Number of pages7
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 6 1999



  • Angioplasty
  • Mortality
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Reperfusion
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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