Adaptation of cells to hypertonicity often involves changes in gene expression. Since the concentration of salt in the interstitial fluid surrounding renal inner medullary cells varies with operation of the renal concentrating mechanism and generally is very high, the adaptive mechanisms of these cells are of special interest. Renal medullary cells compensate for hypertonicity by accumulating variable amounts of compatible organic osmolytes, including sorbitol, myo-inositol, glycine betaine, and taurine. In this review we consider how these solutes help relieve the stress of hypertonicity and the nature of transporters and enzymes responsible for their variable accumulation. We emphasize recent developments concerning the molecular basis for osmotic regulation of these genes, including identification and characterization of osmotic response elements. Although osmotic stresses are much smaller in other parts of the body than in the renal medulla, similar mechanisms operate throughout, yielding important physiological and pathophysiological consequences.
- aldose reductase
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