Adrenomedullin (ADM), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxing peptide with inotropic properties, is elevated in plasma in human and experimental congestive heart failure (CHF). Recent studies suggest that angiotensin II stimulates ADM production and secretion from cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. In the present study, we investigated cardiac ADM in experimental CHF, and tested the hypothesis that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition modulates cardiac ADM in CHF. Cardiac tissue ADM immunoreactivity and gene expression were assessed by radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis in normal and CHF dogs in the presence and absence of ACE inhibition. Experimental CHF was produced by progressive rapid ventricular pacing and characterized by increased ventricular ADM concentrations as well as increased ventricular ADM gene expression. ACE inhibition abolished the increases in ventricular ADM concentrations and ventricular ADM gene expression in CHF. Ventricular ADM gene expression was localized to ventricular myocytes and correlated with left ventricular mass index, suggesting that ventricular ADM is a marker for ventricular hypertrophy. In contrast, atrial ADM concentrations and gene expression did not change in CHF with or without ACE inhibition. Increased plasma ADM concentrations in CHF were also abolished with ACE inhibition. The present study demonstrates that circulating and ventricular ADM are activated in pacing-induced experimental CHF and that ACE inhibition reverses ventricular ADM activation in CHF. This study also indicates that cardiac ADM gene expression is differently regulated between atrium and ventricle in CHF.
- Gene expression
- Heart failure
- Heart hypertrophy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience