The objective of this study was to determine whether BMP-2 and -14, noggin, and chordin could be detected in human fractures and to assess their regional and cellular distribution. The expression of these proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in an archive of human fractures. BMP-2 and BMP-14 expression was strongest in areas of cartilage formation and, to a lesser extent, in areas of bone formation. Within areas of cartilage formation, both BMP-2 and BMP-14 were expressed more strongly by the non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. The BMP inhibitors noggin and chordin were also expressed most intensely in areas of cartilage formation and there was no difference in their expression between the non-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our study demonstrates the expression of BMP-14 and the BMP inhibitors in human fractures for the first time, and our findings will contribute to an improved understanding of the physiological processes in bone repair.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine