The proper functioning of the mammalian cortex depends on the formation of neuronal networks, including principal projection neurons and interneurons that use glutamate and GABA as transmitters, respectively. In the adult brain, cortical interneurons have been implicated in the regulation of the synaptogenesis and neuronal wiring operative in cortical network formation. These neurons are aspiny, express local projecting axons, and their staining with the Golgi method reveals a soma volume smaller than most cortical neurons. They store and synthesize the neurotransmitter GABA and also frequently synthesize and secrete reelin. In embryonic cortex, reelin is synthesized and secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells, guides neuronal migration and positioning of pyramidal neurons (D'Arcangelo et al., 1995). However, postnatally during CNS development and maturation, this protein is synthesized and secreted from GABAergic interneurons and harmonizes the functional plastic interaction of neuronal axons, dendrites, and their spines (Costa et al., 2001; Niu et al., 2004). Reelin secreted in the extracellular matrix contributes to the modulation of neuronal excitability, firing frequencies, and the morphological properties of the telencephalic neuronal networks regulating their coordinated activity (Liu et al., 2001; Costa et al., 2001; Weeber et al., 2002; Qiu et al., 2007).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Reelin Glycoprotein|
|Subtitle of host publication||Structure, Biology and Roles in Health and Disease|
|Publisher||Springer New York|
|Number of pages||23|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2008|
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