Background. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits (PGNMID) is a distinct form of glomerulonephritis that often recurs after kidney transplantation causing severe graft injury and often failure. Methods. We describe post transplant outcomes and response to therapy in 20 recipients with PGNMID. Evidence of PGNMID recurrence or lack thereof was determined by protocol and clinical biopsies. Results. Histologic recurrence (deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin) occurred in 18 of 20 recipients (90%), a median of 7 (1 to 65) months post transplant. At diagnosis, recurrence was generally associated with mild or no clinical manifestations and often with mild glomerular morphologic changes by light microcopy. Four of the 18 patients with recurrence did not progress and were not treated. Another 4 patients with recurrences were treated with cyclophosphamide with or without plasmapheresis, and 2 of these grafts were lost from glomerulonephritis. Nine patients with recurrences were treated with anti-CD20 antibodies (rituximab) alone, resulting in improvements in estimated glomerular filtration rate (31.5 ± 16 versus 38.8 ± 13.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.011) and proteinuria (1280 [117 to 3752] versus 168 [83 to 1613] mg/24 h, P = 0.012) although complete clinical remission was rare. One graft in this later group was lost from recurrence 141 months post transplant. Posttreatment biopsies demonstrated stable or improved glomerular histology in most cases. However, PGNMID did not resolve in any case. Four patients received rituximab 4 months pretransplant to prevent recurrence. However, 3 had mild recurrences. Conclusions. Rituximab treatment of early PGNMID recurrence is effective, resulting in reasonable, long-term graft survival. Whether pretransplant rituximab modifies the course of recurrence requires additional studies.
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