Direct sequencing of the regions of the factor IX gene of likely functional significance was performed in four patients with severe hemophilia B. In two of the individuals, a transition at the dinucleotide CpG caused a nonsense mutation at arginine 333. In the other two individuals, a transition at CpG caused a nonsense mutation at arginine 29. Since these patients are all unrelated, as shown by differing alleles of the TaqI polymorphism in intron four or extensive nonoverlapping pedigrees, the mutations arose independently. In addition, the origin of one arginine 333 mutation in one family has been traced to the germline of the maternal grandfather. The frequent occurrence of mutations at arginine codons that contain the sequence CGN can be explained by the dramatic elevation of transitions at CpG. As a result, approximately one in four individuals with hemophilia B is expected to have a mutation at arginine and nonsense mutations at one of six arginine residues should be common causes of severe hemophilia.
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