Colonoscopy has become the mainstay for screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer. The guidelines for screening and surveillance colonoscopy have recently been updated, particularly in light of greater recognition of the importance of sessile serrated lesions in the role of cancer. It is important for practitioners to be aware of and understand the recommendations for screening and surveillance to optimize patient safety and to decrease health care use. We searched PubMed for articles and guidelines related to screening and surveillance of colonic polyps and serrated adenomas. The related citations feature was also used. The search was conducted from February 22, 2013, to March 2, 2013, and we included the search terms colorectal cancer screening, colonoscopy, guidelines, colorectal polyps, and colorectal surveillance. We selected the most recent guidelines and pertinent articles for this review, in which we discuss the basis of screening and surveillance colonoscopy and provide recommendations for colonoscopy intervals.
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