Oncolytic virotherapy may mediate antitumor effects via direct oncolysis or immune-mediated tumor regression. Although the ability of oncolytic viruses to generate adaptive antitumor immunity has been characterized, their interactions with the innate immune system are relatively unclear. Using a human in vitro system, this study investigates the innate immunological consequences of reovirus therapy and its potential to activate NK cell-mediated antitumor activity. Dendritic cells (DC) loaded with reovirus-infected human melanoma Mel888 cells (DC-MelReo), but not reovirus-infected tumor cells alone, induced IFN-γ production within the NK cell population upon coculture with PBMC, in a cell-to-cell contact-dependent manner. DC-MelReo secreted the chemokines CCL2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, and CXCL10; these culture supernatants induced NK cell chemotaxis. Coculture of DC-MelReo with purified NK cells induced reciprocal contact-dependent phenotypic DC maturation, while DC-MelReo elicited up-regulation of the activation marker CD69 on NK cells, in a partially contact and partially IL-12 dependent manner. Significantly, DC-MelReo induced NK cell cytotoxicity toward tumor cells by a type I IFN dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate that tumor infection by reovirus can act via DC to induce NK cell recruitment, activation, and cytotoxicity, along with reciprocal DC maturation. These findings suggest that reciprocal DC-NK cell interactions, following reovirus therapy, may play an important role in altering the immune milieu of the tumor microenvironment and mediating tumor regression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy