Major advances during the past 2 years have resulted in an unprecedented optimism regarding the perception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection coupled with the availability of assays to measure HIV-1 RNA and the approval of new antiretroviral drugs has led to the development of new approaches to the management of HIV infection. In this article, we discuss these advances and their implications in the care of HIV-infected patients. In addition, we present the guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection.
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