Reactions of ·NO, ·NO2 and peroxynitrite in membranes: Physiological implications

Steven P.A. Goss, Ravinder J. Singh, Neil Hogg, B. Kalyanaraman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nitric oxide (·NO) and nitrogen dioxide (·NO2) are hydrophobic gases. Therefore, lipid membranes and hydrophobic regions of proteins are potential sinks for these species. In these hydrophobic environments, reactive nitrogen species will exhibit different chemistry than in aqueous environments due to higher local concentrations and the lack of hydrolysis reactions. The peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) and peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) can freely pass through lipid membranes, making peroxynitrite-mediated reactions in a hydrophobic environment also of extreme relevance. The reactions observed by these reactive nitrogen species in a hydrophobic milieu include oxidation, nitration and even potent chain-breaking antioxidant reactions. The physiological and toxicological relevance of these reactions is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)597-606
Number of pages10
JournalFree Radical Research
Volume31
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

Keywords

  • Membrane
  • Nitration
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Oxidation
  • Peroxynitrite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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