RBX7455, a Non-frozen, Orally Administered Investigational Live Biotherapeutic, Is Safe, Effective, and Shifts Patients' Microbiomes in a Phase 1 Study for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infections

Sahil Khanna, Darrell S. Pardi, Courtney Jones, William D. Shannon, Carlos Gonzalez, Ken Blount

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) are a global public health threat. To reduce rCDI, microbiota-restoring therapies are needed, particularly standardized, easy-to-administer formulations. METHODS: This phase I open-label trial assessed the safety, efficacy in preventing rCDI recurrence, and intestinal microbiome effects of RBX7455, a room temperature-stable, orally administered investigational live biotherapeutic. Adult participants with 1 or more prior episodes of rCDI received: 4 RBX7455 capsules twice daily for 4 days (group 1); 4 RBX7455 capsules twice daily for 2 days (group 2); or 2 RBX7455 capsules twice daily for 2 days (group 3). For all groups, the first dose was administered in clinic, with remaining doses self-administered at home. Adverse events were monitored during and for 6 months after treatment. Treatment success was defined as rCDI prevention through 8 weeks after treatment. Participants' microbiome composition was assessed prior to and for 6 months after treatment. RESULTS: Nine of 10 group 1 patients (90%), 8 of 10 group 2 patients (80%), and 10 of 10 group 3 patients (100%) were recurrence-free at the 8-week endpoint with durability to 6 months. Seventy-five treatment-emergent adverse events were observed in 27 participants with no serious investigational product-related events. Prior to treatment, participants' microbiomes were dissimilar from the RBX7455 composition with decreased Bacteroidia- and Clostridia-class bacteria, whereas after treatment, responders' microbiomes showed increased Bacteroidia and Clostridia. CONCLUSIONS: Three dosing regimens of RBX7455 were safe and effective at preventing rCDI. Responders' microbiomes converged toward the composition of RBX7455. These results support its continued clinical evaluation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02981316.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e1613-e1620
JournalClinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Volume73
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 5 2021

Keywords

  • Clostridioides difficile infection
  • clinical trial
  • microbiota-based therapeutic
  • oral administration
  • recurrence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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